FRQs

Excellent link to a teacher page with:
1. a rubric for FRQs
2. a worksheet to help write an FRQ
3. a list of FRQs, but scroll down to see lists of people and topics in FRQs, that should help you study

Table of Contents
Renaissance
Age of Exploration
Scientific Revolution
Reformation
Wars of Religion
1600s and 1700s Social and Economic Change
Absolutism and Constitutionalism
Enlightenment
French Revolution and Napoleon
-cherie was here :P
-rachel likes thisss!

Midterm:
two sets of three questions
one from topics 2-6
one from topics 7-10, 13,14

FRQs from 1970s to 2012 (half the topics - this is for the midterm)

FRQ topic
FRQs (all AP FRQs to 2012)
For the Midterm exam (only topics to Napoleon)

Links to student sample answers (only 2000+ is online)
Links to AP historical backgroun information (if they included it that year)
Students

Renaissance: (10 questions in AP Central)

Top of Page

Maia, Danielle D,


1. European monarchs of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries are often referred to as the “New Monarchs.” What was “new” about them? Do their actions warrant this label? (1979)



  • centralized government (Ferdinand Isabella- weakened the cortes [nobles], more cent. power)
  • kept a standing army (Henry VII England established royal navy)
  • established religious singularity throughout their kingdom (inquisition- Ferdinand and Isabella)




2. Compare and contrast the cultural values of the Enlightenment with those of the sixteenth-century Northern Renaissance.(1982)








3. To what extent is the term “Renaissance” a valid concept for a distinct period in early modern European history? (1985)








4. Explain the ways in which Italian Renaissance humanism transformed ideas about the individual’s role in society. (1994)








5. Compare and contrast the patronage of the arts by Italian Renaissance rulers with that of dictators of the 1930s. (1996)








6. Discuss how Renaissance ideas are expressed in the Italian art of the period, referring to specific works and artists. (1998)








7. 2002B (#5): Describe and analyze the differences in the ways in which artists and writers portrayed the individual during the Italian Renaissance and the Romantic era of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.




score

"scoring guideline

Maia


8. 2003B (#3): To what extent and in what ways did women participate in the Renaissance?





scoring guidelines pg 4
Dani


9. 2004 (#5): Analyze the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. Use at least THREE specific works to support your analysis




pg 10
Dani


10. 2005 (#3): Using examples from at least two different states, analyze the key features of the “new monarchies” and the factors responsible for their rise in the period 1450 to 1550.




info
scoring
Maia


11. Compare and contrast the relationship between the artist and society in the Renaissance/Reformation period to the relationship between the artist and society in the late 19th century. (2006)




info and scoring-
Maia


12. Evaluate the influence of Renaissance humanism on Catholic reforms and the Protestant Reformation. (2007 form B #2)





pg 4
Dani


13. Evaluate the changes and continuities in women’s public roles during the Renaissance. (2009 form B #2)




pg 6

Dani


14. Analyze the ways in which the two works above, Perugino’s Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter (1481–1483) on the left, and Michelangelo’s David(1501–1504) on the right, represent the values of Italian Renaissance culture. (see Arts Images section of this doc), (2010, Form B)




pics( scorll down, after Ques 2 an3 )-
info and scoring-
Maia


15. Contrast Renaissance Florence with Reformation Geneva with respect to religion,government, and everyday life. (2011, Form B)




pg 7

Dani


16. Analyze the factors that contributed to the increasing centralization of Spain and the factors that contributed to the continuing fragmentation of Italy in the period1450–1550. (2011)



- sample info and scoring

Maia

Age of Exploration: (4 questions in AP Central)


Top of Page

Yitzchak


1. Explain how economic, technological, political, and religious factors promoted European explorations from about 1450 to about 1525. (1980)








2. In the Seventeenth Century, how did England and the Dutch Republic compete successfully with France and Spain for control of overseas territory and trade? (1982)








3. Analyze the changes in the European economy from about 1450 to 1700 brought about by the voyages of exploration and colonization. (1992) (ANSWER)








4. Focusing on the period before 1600, describe and analyze the cultural and economic interactions between Europe and the Western Hemisphere as a result of the Spanish and Portuguese exploration and settlement. (1997)








5. Describe and analyze how overseas expansion by European states affected global trade and international relations from 1600 to 1715. (2001 #3)



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/sample_euro_hist_01_q3.pdf




6. Explain how advances in learning and technology influenced fifteenth- and sixteenth-century European exploration and trade. (2003 #4)



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap03_european_history_28081.pdf




7. Analyze the economic, technological, and institutional factors responsible for western Europe’s domination of world trade from 1650 to 1800. [2005 #7]



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/05_ap_europeanhistory_46925.pdf




8. 2006 (#4): Analyze the effects of the Colombian exchange (the interchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World and the New World) on the population and economy of Europe in the period 1550 to 1700.



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/members/repository/ap06_eurohistory_samples_q4.pdf



Scientific Revolution: (5 questions in AP Central)

Top of Page

Talia


1. “Nature and nature’s laws lay hid in night



God said ‘Let Newton be,’ and all was light.”



The couplet above was Alexander Pope’s way of expressing the relationship between the Scientific Revolution and Christianity. What was the effect of seventeenth-century science on Christianity, and how did each react to the other? (1978)

2. Analyze the ways in which specific intellectual and scientific developments of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries contributed to the emergence of the religious outlook known as “Deism.” (1982)








3. How did the developments in scientific thought from Copernicus to Newton create a new conception of the universe and humanity’s place in it? (1984) (ANSWER)








4. To what extent and in what ways has twentieth-century physics challenged the Newtonian view of the universe and society? (1986)








5. “In the eighteenth century, people turned to the new science for a better understanding of the social and economic problems of the day.”

Assess the validity of this statement by using specific examples from the Enlightenment era. (1988)








6. Describe the new astronomy of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and analyze the ways in which it changed scientific thought and methods. (1991)








7. 2000 (#7): Explain the development of the scientific method in the seventeenth century and the impact of scientific thinking on traditional sources of authority.



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/sample_euro_hist_00_q7.pdf




8. 2004 (#6): Assess the impact of the Scientific Revolution on religion and philosophy in the period 1550 to 1750.



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap04_euro_history_ope_38664.pdf




9. Analyze how Galileo, Descartes, and Newton altered traditional interpretations of nature and challenged traditional sources of knowledge. (2009 #7)



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap09_european_history_q7.pdf




10. Analyze the ways in which European monarchs used both the arts and the sciences to enhance state power in the period circa 1500–1800. (2010)



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap10_european_history_q2.pdf




11. Analyze various ways in which technological developments contributed to the expansion of state power in the period 1450 to 1600.(2012)



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap12_european_history_q2.pdf



Reformation: (10 questions in AP Central)


Top of Page

Adina, Cherie


1. Trace the evolution of religious toleration as a political practice and assess the factors behind its development from the Reformation through the Enlightenment. (1977)








2. How did the disintegration of the medieval church and the coming of the Reformation contribute to the development of nation-states in Western Europe between 1450 and 1648? (1980)








3. “Luther was both a revolutionary and a conservative.”


Evaluate this statement with respect to Luther’s responses to the political and social questions of his day. (1983)








4. What were the responses of the Catholic authorities in the sixteenth century to the challenges posed by the Lutheran Reformation? (1985)








5. “The Reformation was a rejection of the secular spirit of the Italian Renaissance.”

Defend or refute this statement using specific examples from sixteenth century Europe. (1986) (ANSWER)








6. “The Protestant Reformation was primarily an economic event.” By describing and determining the relative importance of the economic, political, and religious causes of the Protestant Reformation, defend or refute this statement. (1987) (ANSWER)








7. Describe and analyze the ways in which the Roman Catholics defended their faith against the Protestant Reformation. (1991)








8. The pictures below and on the next page show the interiors of a Protestant church and a Roman Catholic Church as each appeared in the first half of the seventeenth century. Using these pictures as a starting point, explain how each of these interiors reflect the differing theologies and religious practices of Protestantism and Catholicism at that time. (1992) (ANSWER) 2 pictures








9. Compare and contrast the attitudes of Martin Luther and John Calvin toward political authority and social order. (1995)








10. Assess the extent to which the Protestant Reformation promoted new expectations about social roles in the sixteenth century. Refer to at least two social groups in your response. (1996)








11. Compare and contrast the Lutheran Reformation and the Catholic Reformation of the sixteenth century regarding the reform of both religious doctrines and religious practices. (1998)








12. Discuss the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the first half of the sixteenth century (2001 #4)








13. 2002B (#2): To what extent did political authorities influence the course of the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century?








14. Compare and contrast the motives and actions of Martin Luther in the German states and King Henry VIII in England in bringing about religious change during the Reformation. [2005 #4]








15. Analyze the aims, methods, and degree of success of the Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) in the 16th century. (2006)








16. How and to what extent did the methods and ideals of Renaissance humanism contribute to the Protestant Reformation? (2006)B








17. Evaluate the influence of Renaissance humanism on Catholic reforms and the Protestant Reformation. (2007 form B #2)








18. Analyze the impacts of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation) of the social order of sixteenth-century Europe. (2009 form B #3)








19. Analyze the various Protestant views of the relationship between church and state inthe period circa 1500–1700. (2010)








20. Contrast Renaissance Florence with Reformation Geneva with respect to religion,government, and everyday life. (2011, Form B)








21. Analyze various ways in which religious reform in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries influenced the arts. (2012)







Wars of Religion: 7 questions in AP Central)


Top of Page

Moshe, Kayla P,


1. Evaluate the relative importance of the religious rivalries and dynastic ambitions that shaped the course of the Thirty Years War. (1981)








2. Describe and analyze the ways in which the development of printing altered both the culture and the religion of Europe during the period 1450-1600. (1988) (ANSWER)








3. In 1519 Charles of Hapsburg became Charles V, Holy Roman emperor. Discuss and analyze the political, social, and religious problems he faced over the course of his imperial reign (1519-1556). (1990) (ANSWER)








4. Discuss the relationship between politics and religion by examining the wars of religion. Choose TWO specific examples from the following (1999):

Dutch Revolt





French Wars of Religion




English Civil War




Thirty Years’ War











5. Analyze at least TWO factors that account for the rise and TWO factors that explain the decline of witchcraft persecution and trials in Europe in the period from 1580 to 1750. [2002 #3]



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/sample_eurohistory_q3_18533.pdf

Moshe


6. Compare and contrast the religious policies of TWO of the following: [2002 #2]

Elizabeth I of England




Catherine de Médicis of France




Isabella I of Spain






http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/sample_eurohistory_q2_18531.pdf

moshe


7. 2003B (#6): Explain why Europe saw no lasting peace in the period between the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 and the Peace of Paris in 1763.



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap03_european_history_28091.pdf

moshe


8. Account for the growth and decline of European witch-hunts in the period 1500 to 1650. [2005B #2]



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/05_ap_europeanhistory_46926.pdf
(pdf includes all questions for 2005B)

moshe


9. Analyze the intellectual foundations of religious toleration in 18th century Europe. (2006) B



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/members/repository/ap06_eurohistory_formB_samples_q6.pdf

moshe


10. Analyze the reasons for the decline of the Holy Roman Empire as a force in European politics in the period 1517 to 1648. (2006-non released)








11. Analyze various ways in which the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) represented a turning point in European history. (2009 #6)







1600s and 1700s Social and Economic Change: (13 questions in AP Central)

Top of Page

Daniella C, Jessica, Ezra, Jonathan


1. In the seventeenth century, England and the Netherlands developed effective capitalist economies, while Spain did not. Why did the economies develop so differently in England and the Netherlands, on the one hand, and in Spain, on the other? (1979)








2. Compare the economic roles of the state under seventeenth-century mercantilism and twentieth-century communism. Illustrate your answer with reference to the economic system of France during Louis XIV’s reign under Colbert and of the Soviet Union under Stalin. (1981)








3. In the Seventeenth Century, how did England and the Dutch Republic compete successfully with France and Spain for control of overseas territory and trade? (1982)








4. “In the fifteenth century, European society was still centered on the Mediterranean region, but by the end of the seventeenth century, the focus of Europe had shifted north.”

Identify and analyze the economic developments between 1450 and 1700 that helped bring about this shift. (1989)








5. Analyze the changes in the European economy from about 1450 to 1700 brought about by the voyages of exploration and colonization. (1992) (ANSWER)








6. Analyze the influence of the theory of mercantilism on the domestic and foreign policies of France, 1600-1715. (1995)








7. Describe and analyze the economic, cultural, and social changes that led to and sustained Europe’s rapid population growth in the period from approximately 1650-1800. (1997)








8. Compare and contrast the roles of British workingwomen in the pre-industrial economy (before 1750) with their roles in the era 1850 to 1920. (1998)








9. 2001 (#3): Describe and analyze how overseas expansion by European states affected global trade and international relations from 1600 to 1715.





Daniella


10. Identify features of the eighteenth-century Agricultural Revolution and analyze its social and economic consequences. [2003 #2]





Daniella


11. Explain the reasons for the rise of the Netherlands as a leading commercial power in the period 1550 – 1650. [2004B #7]





Daniella


12. 2005B (#5): Discuss the economic policies and institutions that characterized mercantilist systems from 1600 to 1800.





Jessica


13. 2006B (#2): How and to what extent did the Commercial Revolution transform the European economy and diplomatic balance of power in the period from 1650 to 1763?





jessica


14. 2006 (#5): Compare and contrast the social and economic roles of the state in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe (before 1789) to the social and economic roles of the state in Europe after the Second World War.





Jonathan


15. Britain and France were engaged in a geopolitical and economic rivalry during the eighteenth century. Identify the factors that contributed to this rivalry, and assess the results for both countries over the period 1689-1799. (2007 #6)



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/members/repository/ap06_eurohistory_samples_q5.pdf

Splava


16. Describe and analyze the changes that led to Europe’s rapid population growth in the eighteenth century. (2008 #3)



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap08_euro_history_q3.pdf

Splava


17. Compare and contrast the economic factors responsible for the decline of Spain with the economic factors responsible for the decline of the Dutch Republic by the end of the seventeenth century. (2009 #5)



http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap09_european_history_q5.pdf

Splava Splave!


18. Analyze the impacts of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation) of the social order of sixteenth-century Europe. (2009 form B #3)





Jonathan


19. Analyze the impact of the major developments of the Commercial Revolution on Europe’s economy and society in the period 1650-1789. (2009 form B #4)





Jonathan


20. Analyze the various effects of the expansion of the Atlantic trade on the economy ofWestern Europe in the period circa 1450–1700. (2010)








21. Compare and contrast the economic and social development of Russia with that of theNetherlands in the period 1600–1725. (2010, Form B)







Absolutism and Constitutionalism: 9 questions in AP central)

Top of Page

Kayla G, Michali


1. Compare and contrast the extent to which Catherine the Great and Joseph Stalin were “Westernizers.”








2. “By 1700 it had become evident that Western Europe and Eastern Europe were moving in opposite directions in terms of their basic social structures.” Discuss. (1978)








3. “Every successful revolution puts on in time the robes of the tyrant it has deposed.” Evaluate this statement with regard to the English Revolution (1640-1660), the French Revolution (1789-1815), and the Russian Revolution (1917-1930). (1978)








4. In the seventeenth century, England displayed little political stability, yet by the end of the century England had laid the foundations for constitutional monarchy. What were the political, social, economic, and religious factors and events that ultimately led to the Glorious Revolution?








5. In the seventeenth century, England and the Netherlands developed effective capitalist economies, while Spain did not. Why did the economies develop so differently in England and the Netherlands, on the one hand, and in Spain, on the other? (1979)








6. In the seventeenth century, what political conditions accounted for the increased power of both the Parliament in England and the monarchy in France? (1982) (ANSWER)








7. Analyze the major ways through which Tsar Peter the Great (1689-1725) sought to reform his society and its institutions in order to strengthen Russia and its position in Europe.(1985)








8. “In seventeenth-century England the aristocracy lost its privileges but retained its power; in seventeenth-century France the aristocracy retained its privileges but lost its power.”

Assess the accuracy of this statement with respect to political events and social developments in the countries in the seventeenth century. (1985)








9. Analyze the ways in which both the theory and practice of monarchy evolved in England from 1603 (the death of Elizabeth I) to 1688-1689 (the Glorious Revolution). (1987) (ANSWER)








10. Analyze the military, political, and social factors that account for the rise of Prussia between 1640 and 1786. (1991)








11. Describe and analyze the changes in the role of Parliament in English politics between the succession of James I and the Glorious Revolution. (1993)








12. Analyze the influence of the theory of mercantilism on the domestic and foreign policies of France, 1600-1715. (1995)








13. Compare and contrast the relationships between the great powers and Poland between 1772-1815 and 1918-1939. (1996)








14. “Leadership determines the fate of the country”;



Evaluate this quotation in terms of Spain’s experience under Phillip II. (2000)






Kayla g


15. 2002 (#5): In what ways and to what extent did absolutism affect the power and status of the European nobility in the period 1650 to 1750? Use examples from at least TWO countries.





Kayla g


16. 2002B (#3): Compare and contrast the goals and major policies of Peter the Great of Russia (ruled 1682-1725) with those of Frederick the Great of Prussia (ruled 1740-1786).





Kayla g


17. Louis XIV declared his goal was “one king, one law, one faith.”


Analyze the methods the king used to achieve this objective and discuss the extent to which he was successful. (2003 #3)





Kayla g


18. 2004B (#6): Compare and contrast the ways that seventeenth-century absolute monarchs and twentieth-century dictators gained and maintained their power.





Michali


19. Analyze the methods and degrees of success of Russian political and social reform from the period of Peter the Great (1689-1725) through Catherine the Great (1762-1796). (2008 #2)





Michali


20. Analyze the extent to which Frederick the Great of Prussia and Joseph II of Austria advanced and did not advance Enlightenment ideals during their reigns. (2009 #4)





Michali


21. Describe the challenges to royal authority in eastern Europe in the seventeenthand eighteenth centuries and evaluate the effectiveness of those challenges. (2011, form B)





Michali


22. Analyze how the political and economic problems of the English and Frenchmonarchies led to the English Civil War and the French Revolution. (2011)





Michali

Enlightenment: (13 questions in AP Central)


Top of Page

Avi, Ariel, Brett, Hod


1. How did social and political conditions in eighteenth-century Western Europe prior to 1788 influence the ideas of the Enlightenment? (1980)








2. Analyze the ways in which specific intellectual and scientific developments of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries contributed to the emergence of the religious outlook known as “Deism.” (1982)








3. Compare and contrast the cultural values of the Enlightenment with those of the sixteenth-century Northern Renaissance.(1982)








4. To what extent and in what ways did intellectual developments in Europe in the period 1880-1920 undermine confidence in human rationality and a well-ordered dependable universe? (1983)








5. In what ways did Enlightenment thinkers build on or make use of the ideas of Newton and Locke? (1983)








6. Compare and contrast the views of Machiavelli and Rousseau on human nature and the relationship between government and the governed. (1984)








7. In what ways did the writings of Karl Marx draw on the Enlightenment concepts of progress, natural law, and reason? (1987)








8. “In the eighteenth century, people turned to the new science for a better understanding of the social and economic problems of the day.”

Assess the validity of this statement by using specific examples from the Enlightenment era. (1988)








9. Describe and analyze the issues and ideas in the debate in Europe between 1750 and 1846 over the proper role of government in the economy. Give specific examples. (1992) (ANSWER)








10. Between 1450 and 1800, many women gained power as rulers, some as reigning queens, others as regents. Identify two such powerful women and discus how issues of gender, such as marriage and reproduction, influenced their ability to obtain and exercise power. (1994)








11. Analyze the ways in which Enlightenment thought addressed religious beliefs and social issues in the eighteenth century. (1994)








12. To what extent did the Enlightenment express optimistic ideas in the eighteenth-century? Illustrate your answer with references to specific individuals and their works. (1998)








13. Machiavelli suggests that a ruler should behave both “like a lion” and “like a fox.” Analyze the policies of TWO of the following European rulers, indicating the degree to which they successfully followed Machiavelli’s suggestion. (1999)



Choose two:






Henry IV of France





Elizabeth I of England





Catherine the Great of Russia





Frederick II of Prussia










14. 2000 (#5): Evaluate how the ideas of Charles Darwin and Sigmund Freud challenged Enlightenment assumptions about human behavior and the role of reason.



sample answer- provided by Avi

background info- provided by Avi
scroll down to page 9 of pdf for question #5 guidelines

Avi


15. 2002B (#6): Compare and contrast two theories of government introduced in the period from 1640 to 1780.



sample answer- provided by Avi

scoring guidelines- provided by Avi
scroll down to page 7 of pdf for question #6 guidelines

Avi


16. 2002B (#7): Both Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683) and Adam Smith (1723-1790) sought to increase the wealth of their respective countries. How did their recommendations differ?



sample answer- provided by Avi

scoring guidelines- provided by Avi

scroll down to page 8 of pdf for question #7 guidelines
Avi


17. 2003B (#4): Describe and analyze the influence of the Enlightenment on both elite culture and popular culture in the eighteenth century.





Ariel


18. 2004B (#3): To what extent did Romanticism challenge Enlightenment views of human beings and of the natural world?





Ariel


19. Compare and contrast Enlightenment and Romantic views of the relationship between God and the individual. [2005B #3]




Brett


20. Analyze the impact of TWO cultural and/or technological developments on European education in the period 1450 to 1650. (2006-non released)








21. Compare and contrast the political ideas of Hobbes and Locke. (2006-non released)








22. 2006B (#6): Analyze the intellectual foundations of religious toleration in eighteenth-century Europe.





Brett


23. Analyze the ways in which the events of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic period (1789-1815) led people to challenge Enlightenment views of society, politics, and human nature. (2008 #7)





Ariel


24. Analyze the extent to which Frederick the Great of Prussia and Joseph II of Austria advanced and did not advance Enlightenment ideals during their reigns. (2009 #4)





Brett


25. Analyze the ways in which the ideas of seventeenth-century thinkers John Locke andIsaac Newton contributed to the ideas of eighteenth-century Enlightenment thinkers. (2010, Form B)








26. Compare and contrast Enlightenment and Romantic views of nature, with reference tospecific individuals and their works. (2011)







French Revolution and Napoleon: 8 questions in AP Central)

Top of Page

Emily, Rachel P


1. Discuss the decline of the aristocracy in Western Europe. When did the decline occur, what forms did it take, and what factors caused it? (1977)








2. “Every successful revolution puts on in time the robes of the tyrant it has deposed.”

Evaluate this statement with regard to the English Revolution (1640-1660), the French Revolution (1789-1815), and the Russian Revolution (1917-1930). (1978)








3. “Napoleon I is sometimes called the greatest enlightened despot.”

Evaluate this assessment in terms of Napoleon I’s policies and accomplishments.
Be sure to include a definition of enlightened despotism in your answer. (1981)








4. Compare the economic roles of the state under seventeenth-century mercantilism and twentieth-century communism. Illustrate your answer with reference to the economic system of France during Louis XIV’s reign under Colbert and of the Soviet Union under Stalin. (1981)








5. “The essential cause of the French Revolution was the collision between a powerful, rising bourgeoisie and an entrenched aristocracy defending its privileges.”

Assess the validity of this statement as an explanation of the events leading up to
the French Revolution of 1789. (1984)








6. Compare and contrast the efforts to ensure European collective security that were made by the victorious powers between 1815 and 1930 (after the Napoleonic Wars) with those made by the victorious powers between 1918 and 1933 (after the First World War). (1985) (ANSWER)








7. Compare and contrast the roles of the peasantry and urban workers in the French Revolution of 1789 to those of the peasantry and urban workers in the Russian Revolutions of 1917. (1985)








8. To what extent and in what ways was the French Revolution during the period 1789 through the Reign of Terror (1794) an attempt to create a government based on enlightenment ideals? (1986) (ANSWER)








9. “Political leaders committed to radical or extremist goals often exert authoritarian control in the name of higher values.”

Support or refute this statement with reference to the political and cultural policies of Robespierre during the French Revolution. (1989)








10. “Napoleon was a child of the Enlightenment.”



Assess the validity of the statement above. Use examples referring both to specific aspects of the Enlightenment and to Napoleon’s policies and attitudes.
#######












11. Identify the major social groups in France on the eve of the 1789 Revolution. Assess the extent to which their aspirations were achieved in the period from the meeting of the Estates-General (1789) to the declaration of the republic (September 1792). (1996)








12. Compare and contrast the degree of success of treaties negotiated in Vienna (1814-1815) and Versailles (1919) in achieving European stability. (1999)








13. 2001 (#7): Compare and contrast the French Jacobins’ use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals during the Terror (1793-1794) with Stalin’s use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals in the Soviet Union during the period 1928 to 1939.









14. How and to what extent did Enlightenment ideas about religion and society shape the policies of the French Revolution in the period 1789 to 1799? (2003 #7)








15. Compare and contrast the extent to which the French Revolution (1789 – 1799) and the Russian Revolution (1917 – 1924) changed the status of women. [2004A -- #2]








16. Identify the grievances of the groups that made up the Third Estate in France on the eve of the French Revolution, and analyze the extent to which ONE of these groups was able to address its grievances in the period 1789 to 1799. (2007 #7)




Emily Firestone



17. Analyze the ways in which the events of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic period (1789-1815) led people to challenge Enlightenment views of society, politics, and human nature. (2008 #7)




Emily Firestone



18. Compare and contrast the crises in state authority that precipitated the French Revolution in 1789 and the February and October Revolutions in Russia in 1917. (2009 form B #6)




Emily Firestone



19. Analyze how the political and economic problems of the English and Frenchmonarchies led to the English Civil War and the French Revolution. (2011)




Emily Firestone



20. Analyze various ways in which government policies during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic era contributed toa greater sense of French national identity in the period 1789 to 1815. (2012)
Emily Firestone